Hooks-and-Lines

Fish are attracted to hooks-and-lines by natural or artificial bair placed on a hook, which captures the fish when it bites the bait. One or multiple lines may be used to catch pelagic, demersal, or benthic species. Different line and hook types are used depending on the target species.
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<i>Set longlines</i> are used near the ocean bottom and consist of regularly spaced shorter lines, or snoods, attached to a long main line. <i> Drifting longlines </i> have a main line kept near the surface by floats, with baited hooks attached to long snoods. <i>Trolling lines</i> are towed behind a vessel at the surface or depth, and use baited hooks or lures. <i>Vertical lines</i> are attached to a sinker and have one or multiple hooks. <i> Poles and lines</i>, consisting of a baited hook or lure attached to a pole, are the gear type most frequently used by recreational fishermen. <i>Handlines</i>, such as those used for squid jigging, are vertically weighted lines attached to bait or lures; fish are hauled up into the boat when caught.
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For more detailed information, please visit the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department <a href="http://www.fao.org/fishery/geartype/109/en" target="_blank"> hooks and lines</a> web page.

Field Study 369

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Australia

Target catch: 

Bigeye tuna

Effect on bycatch species: 

None reported

Effect on target catch: 

Weighted longlines had a slightly higher overall CPUE (1.3 fish/100 hooks) compared to traditional longlines (1.08 fish/100 hooks) and caught more bigeye (0.95 fish/ 100 hooks) than traditional longlines (0.56 fish/100 hooks). Catch rates were not very

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Field Study 367

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Bay of Bengal

Target catch: 

Tunas and billfish

Effect on bycatch species: 

J-hooks caught a higer percentage (74.5%) of bycatch compared to target (25.5%) species, while circle hooks caught a similar percentage of each (53.3% and 46.7% respectively). Bycatch catch rates were higher on J-hooks (5.6 individuals/1,000 hooks) than

Effect on target catch: 

Target species catch rates were higher on circle hooks (2.2 individuals/1,000 hooks) compared to J-hooks (1.9 individuals/1,000 hooks). Swordfish caught by J-hooks were slightly larger than those caught on circle hooks.

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Field Study 365

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Wollongong, Australia

Target catch: 

Tuna

Effect on bycatch species: 

Blue-dyed squid bait reduced subsurface interactions with seabirds by 68%. Seabirds struck only 3-8% of surface blue-dyed squid bait compared with 75-98% of non-dyed squid bait. Birds struck 48% of blue-dyed fish bait at the surface during the first tw

Effect on target catch: 

None reported

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Field Study 363

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Georges Bank

Target catch: 

Swordfish

Effect on bycatch species: 

No signficant difference in catch rates between gangions for loggerhead sea turtles.

Effect on target catch: 

There were no differences in the mean length at capture, but signficantly more swordfish were caught on the monofilament gangions.

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Field Study 362

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Georges Bank

Target catch: 

Swordfish

Effect on bycatch species: 

No signficant difference in catch rates between gangions for white marlin.

Effect on target catch: 

There were no differences in the mean length at capture, but signficantly more swordfish were caught on the monofilament gangions.

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Field Study 361

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Georges Bank

Target catch: 

Swordfish

Effect on bycatch species: 

Signficant differences in catch rates for blue sharks and pelagic stingrays between the two gangions, with more animals being caught on the monofilament gangions. No significant difference was found between gangions for mako sharks.

Effect on target catch: 

There were no differences in the mean length at capture, but signficantly more swordfish were caught on the monofilament gangions.

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Field Study 359

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

East Cape, New Zealand

Target catch: 

Bigeye tuna

Effect on bycatch species: 

Results were inconclusive

Effect on target catch: 

No signficiant effect reported for individual species and when all species were combined the results were inconclusive

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Field Study 340

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

US Atlantic

Target catch: 

Tuna and swordfish

Effect on bycatch species: 

Pelagic stingrays had higher catch rates on J-style hooks and survival rates of dolphinfish and escolar were higher when circle hooks were used (fall and spring respectively)

Effect on target catch: 

Catch rates of yellowfin tuna caught in the fall were higher on circle hooks. Yellowfin tuna were caught four times as often in the mouth when circle hooks were used in the fall.

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Fishing Gear: 

ant

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Southern Brazil

Target catch: 

Swordfish, blue sharks

Effect on bycatch species: 

Reduced incidental capture of seabirds by 64%

Effect on target catch: 

Increased catch rates of target species (swordfish by 32% and blue sharks by 15.1%)

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