Hooks-and-Lines

Fish are attracted to hooks-and-lines by natural or artificial bair placed on a hook, which captures the fish when it bites the bait. One or multiple lines may be used to catch pelagic, demersal, or benthic species. Different line and hook types are used depending on the target species.
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<i>Set longlines</i> are used near the ocean bottom and consist of regularly spaced shorter lines, or snoods, attached to a long main line. <i> Drifting longlines </i> have a main line kept near the surface by floats, with baited hooks attached to long snoods. <i>Trolling lines</i> are towed behind a vessel at the surface or depth, and use baited hooks or lures. <i>Vertical lines</i> are attached to a sinker and have one or multiple hooks. <i> Poles and lines</i>, consisting of a baited hook or lure attached to a pole, are the gear type most frequently used by recreational fishermen. <i>Handlines</i>, such as those used for squid jigging, are vertically weighted lines attached to bait or lures; fish are hauled up into the boat when caught.
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For more detailed information, please visit the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department <a href="http://www.fao.org/fishery/geartype/109/en" target="_blank"> hooks and lines</a> web page.

Field Study 605

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

eastern Pacific Ocean

Target catch: 

Tuna

Effect on bycatch species: 

Significant differences between J and circle hook size 15 and between J and circle hook size 16 were found in the bycatch species group (all species grouped together). Chub mackerel bait caught the sharks.

Effect on target catch: 

No significant differences in catch rates of the target species were found between hook types. The highest catch rates for tunas were found on circle hooks size 15. Squid and jack mackerel bait had the highest catch rates for tunas.

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Field Study 574

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

northwest Pacific Ocean

Target catch: 

Pelagic species

Effect on bycatch species: 

None reported

Effect on target catch: 

There were no significant differences in catch rates between hook types but squid bait caught significantly more blue and silky sharks and dolphinfish.

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Field Study 572

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Mazaltan, Mexico

Target catch: 

Pelagic species

Effect on bycatch species: 

None reported

Effect on target catch: 

Circle hooks had the highest catch rates for the principal target species, blue and striped marlin.

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Reduction technique: 

Field Study 570

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

South-western Atlantic Ocean

Target catch: 

Tuna, blue sharks, swordfish

Effect on bycatch species: 

The incidental capture of loggerhead sea turtles was reduced by 55% and for leatherback sea turtles by 65% when circle hooks were used.

Effect on target catch: 

Catch rates of targeted species including bigeye and albacore tuna and blue sharks were increased with the use of circle hooks, while no difference was found for yellowfin tuna, shortfin mako or hammerhead sharks or for dolphinfish.

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Field Study 568

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

South Africa

Target catch: 

tuna

Effect on bycatch species: 

Catch rates of birds were higher on unweighted compared to weighted branchlines.

Effect on target catch: 

Catch rates of fish were not significantly different between the two branchline types at night or during the dawn.

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Field Study 567

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

South Africa

Target catch: 

tuna

Effect on bycatch species: 

The mean total attack rate was similar for each design but diving birds attacked further astern in response to both tori line types compared to surface foraging birds. The "hybrid" line did not allow attacks by divers within 50 m but the "light" line al

Effect on target catch: 

None reported

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Field Study 540

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Hawaii

Target catch: 

Bigeye tuna

Effect on bycatch species: 

Statistically more sickle pomfret and fewer wahoo, dolphinfish, blue marlin, striped marlin and shortbill spearfish were caught on the experimental compared to the control sets

Effect on target catch: 

No significant differences in catch rates between the two set types was found

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Field Study 536

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Hawaii

Target catch: 

Bigeye tuna

Effect on bycatch species: 

Catch rates on circle hooks were significantly lower than on Japanese style and "J" hooks for 16 and 8 species respectively. Fish length was significantly shorter for four species on Japanese style hooks and for three species on "J" hooks. Survival was

Effect on target catch: 

There were no significant differences in catch, catch rate or mean length for bigeye tunas. Survival was significantly higher for bigeye tuna caught on circle vs. Japanese style hooks.

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Fishing gear modifications to reduce elasmobranch mortality in pelagic and bottom longline fisheries off Northeast Brazil

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Brazil

Target catch: 

tuna (pelagic) and sharks (bottom)

Effect on bycatch species: 

CPUE was significantly higher for night, blue, silky, and oceanic whitetip sharks on circle hooks.

Effect on target catch: 

None reported for pelagic longlines. On bottom longlines, CPUE was higher for blacknose and nurse sharks and southern stingrays; no CPUE difference between hook type; more tiger and blacknose sharks were alive at haulback with circle hooks

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