Hooks-and-Lines

Fish are attracted to hooks-and-lines by natural or artificial bair placed on a hook, which captures the fish when it bites the bait. One or multiple lines may be used to catch pelagic, demersal, or benthic species. Different line and hook types are used depending on the target species.
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<i>Set longlines</i> are used near the ocean bottom and consist of regularly spaced shorter lines, or snoods, attached to a long main line. <i> Drifting longlines </i> have a main line kept near the surface by floats, with baited hooks attached to long snoods. <i>Trolling lines</i> are towed behind a vessel at the surface or depth, and use baited hooks or lures. <i>Vertical lines</i> are attached to a sinker and have one or multiple hooks. <i> Poles and lines</i>, consisting of a baited hook or lure attached to a pole, are the gear type most frequently used by recreational fishermen. <i>Handlines</i>, such as those used for squid jigging, are vertically weighted lines attached to bait or lures; fish are hauled up into the boat when caught.
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For more detailed information, please visit the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department <a href="http://www.fao.org/fishery/geartype/109/en" target="_blank"> hooks and lines</a> web page.

Fishing gear threat to right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in Canadian waters and the risk of lethal entanglement

Study Type: 

summary

Location: 

Bay of Fundy and Scotian Shelf

Target catch: 

groundfish and pelagic species

Effect on bycatch species: 

Groundfish hook and line gear posed were determined to pose the greatest threat during summer resident period in Critical Habitat

Effect on target catch: 

na

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Fishing Gear: 

Bycatch species: 

Integrated weight longlines with paired streamer lines - best practice to prevent seabird bycatch in demersal longline

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Bering Sea

Target catch: 

Pacific cod

Effect on bycatch species: 

Integrated weight longlines paired with streamer lines eliminated surface foraging and shearwater catch by 97%; integrated weigh longlines reduced surface forager catch rates by 91% and unweighted longlines with paired streamer by 98%

Effect on target catch: 

Target catch rates were not affected

Article: 

Bycatch species: 

Reduction technique: 

Fishing Gear: 

Comparison of bycatch species captured during daytime and nighttime: preliminary results of longline experiments carried out in the Seychelles waters

Study Type: 

summary

Location: 

Seychelles

Target catch: 

swordfish and tuna

Effect on bycatch species: 

All marketable species were caught in the 150 m layer during day and night sets.

Effect on target catch: 

Differences in the species composition, quantity and depth of capture for bycatch species

Article: 

Fishing Gear: 

Bycatch species: 

The impact of predation by marine mammals on Patagonian toothfish longline fisheries

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

South Georgia

Target catch: 

Patagonian toothfish

Effect on bycatch species: 

Sperm whales interacted with longlines 25% of the time; orcas interacted only 5% of the time could remove half of the catch; fur seal interactions have declined since 2009

Effect on target catch: 

Catch rates were lower when marine mammals were present

Article: 

Fishing Gear: 

Bycatch species: 

Hooks equipped with magnets can increase catches of blue shark (Prionace glauca) by longline fishery

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

NE Atlantic

Target catch: 

Tuna and blue sharks

Effect on bycatch species: 

Magnets increased and did not decrease blue shark catch rates. Larger magnets had a stronger effect.

Effect on target catch: 

None reported

Article: 

Bycatch species: 

Reduction technique: 

Fishing Gear: 

Reducing longline bycatch: the larger the hook, the fewer the stingrays

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Central Mediterranean SEa

Target catch: 

Swordfish

Effect on bycatch species: 

Bait size did not have a significant effect on stingray catch rates

Effect on target catch: 

Article: 

Bycatch species: 

Reduction technique: 

Fishing Gear: 

Reducing longline bycatch: the larger the hook, the fewer the stingrays

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Central Mediterranean SEa

Target catch: 

Swordfish

Effect on bycatch species: 

Light attractants did not have a significant effect on stringray catch rate

Effect on target catch: 

Article: 

Bycatch species: 

Reduction technique: 

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Hawaii longline tuna fishery temporal trends in standardized catch rates and length distributions and effects on pelagic seamount ecosystems

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Pacific

Target catch: 

Tuna

Effect on bycatch species: 

Reduced sea turtle interactions likely due to use of circle and not J hooks

Effect on target catch: 

All tuna species had higher catches rates when wider circle hooks were used. Shortfin spearfish and striped marlin catch rates were lower with circle hooks. No differences in average length between hook types.

Article: 

Bycatch species: 

Reduction technique: 

Fishing Gear: 

Circle hook effectiveness for the mitigation of sea turtle bycatch and capture of target species in a Brazilian pelagic longline fishery

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

South-western Atlantic Ocean

Target catch: 

Tuna, blue sharks, swordfish

Effect on bycatch species: 

De-hooking was decreased from 25% to 5.8% in loggerhead sea turtles when circle hooks were used.

Effect on target catch: 

Reduction technique: 

Bycatch species: 

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