Glossary of Bycatch Reduction Techniques
Underwater sound-emitting devices (maximum level of intensity equivalent to approximately 175 dB re 1 µPa @ 1m) attached to fishing gear, principally gillnets. ADD’s such as acoustic pingers are now mandated for use in some fisheries in the U.S. Northwest Atlantic, California driftnet, and in Europe. The sound of these devices is believed to alert an animal to the presence of the net and thus decrease the probability of entanglement. Although some studies have shown that pingers can have the unintended consequence of attracting pinnipeds to fishing operations (Bordino et al., 2002) , this may be controllable by raising the emitted frequency of the pingers above seal hearing (Kraus et al., 1997). Other ADD’s emit sounds of such high intensity that they cause pain or alarm in certain underwater species. The minimum sound level is approximately 200 dB re 1 _Pa @ 1m (Olesiuk et al., 2002). Other ADD’s include audio recordings of an animal in distress, or of its predator, played to deter individuals of that species from entering into a fishing area. Jefferson and Curry concluded that this technique was largely ineffective for reducing marine mammal interactions with fishing activity based on their review of multiple studies. Sounds produced to disrupt the normal echolocation abilities of cetaceans are also considered ADD’s. Preliminary research in Europe has shown some promise that these devices reduce depredation by bottlenose dolphins in gillnets and trammel nets, although habituation may be a challenge (Mooney et al. 2009) . The use of loud explosive devices, including gunshots, to scare non-target species such as sea lions away from a fishing operation can also be used. Deterrence may result from noise or tactile annoyance. Anecdotal evidence from some fishermen suggests this practice is widespread though its efficacy is not backed up by a number of studies, and it obviously threatens animal survival (Matkin 1994).
Changing the type of bait, such as switching from squid to mackerel, to deter non-target animals (such as sea turtles) that prefer one type of bait versus another (Watson et al. 2005).
Traditional leaders used in fishing gears such as longlines, pound nets, gillnets and/or traps are modified with an alternative design. For example, deep water pound net leaders can be modified by replacing the top two-thirds of the traditional mesh panel leader with vertical ropes (DeAlteris et al. 2005).
Discarding waste away from where bait enters the water to lure non-target species (seabirds) away from baited hooks in longline fisheries (McNamara et al. 1999).
Devices that use an acoustic trigger for releasing a buoy attached to submerged pots that would then float to the surface for gear retrieval. This would eliminate vertical (and potentially entangling) lines in the water column (DeAlteris 1999).
A barrier, which prevents birds from forming a flight path alongside vessels when baited hooks are being deployed (Gilman et al. 2007).
A number of devices used to disturb birds from foraging on bait. These include streamers attached to a pole suspended above the area where bait is set or placed in the water, towed buoys, and water jets (Melvin et al. 2010).
A circular hook design in which the point of the hook is perpendicular to the hook shank. Circle hooks are used widely in many recreational and commercial fisheries and recently have been shown to reduce both the hooking rate and the mortality of turtles that are hooked on pelagic longline gear. As a result of several successful field trials (Bolten and Bjorndal 2005)(Watson et al. 2005), these hooks are becoming increasingly used in longline fisheries.
Soak time is the length of time that fishing gear is submerged between hauls; reducing it appears to change bycatch probabilities (Watson et al. 2005).
Baited hooks in longline fisheries set below 100 meters of water to avoid the principle feeding zones of sea turtles and other epipelagic species. Increasing the depth at which pelagic drift nets are set may also reduce bycatch rates of air-breathing vertebrates (Beverly et al. 2004).
Various colored rope or other vertical line material used as 1) buoy lines for crab, whelk or lobster pots, 2) end lines of connected pots or 3) end or anchor lines for gillnet systems (Kot et al. 2012).
One FAD with a solid light at 20 m depth is deployed by a work boat. A second FAD with a flashing light at 100 m depth is deployed by a second work boat. The second work boat moves the FAD with the flashing light away from the first FAD. As it moves away, the main boat encircles the first FAD with the surrounding net (Kawamoto et al 2012). Study on the methods to mitigate the bycatch of juvenile bigeye tuna by introducing Double-FADs with light stimulus for tuna purse seine fishery.
Bait dyed blue to reduce its visibility to non-target species such as seabirds hovering around longlines as baited hooks are deployed (Watson et al. 2002).
Electromagnetic fields created in the vicinity of a fishing activity to deter interaction of non-target species with fishing gear, bait, or target species. For example, rare earth metals, such as cerium or lanthanide, are attached or imbedded into hooks (longline, hook and line etc.) in an effort to deter the incidental bycatch of sharks and rays (Tallack et al. 2009). The main prize of the 2006 Smart Gear competition run by the World Wildlife Fund was for a magnetic shark deterrent to be tested on pelagic longlines. Polet et al (2005) describe evaluations of an "electro-trawl" in which electric charges stimulated shrimp into moving upward from the sea floor into the path of the trawl mouth. In this approach, the space between the groundrope and the benthos might be increased without reducing target catch levels but decreasing the contact the trawl might have with some non-target benthic invertebrates and groundfish.
These can consist of a grid of metal bars or mesh placed usually within the neck of a trawl that has an opening for escape at either the top or bottom. Examples include “skylights” which consist of a mesh opening located at the top of the codend. ”Skylights” can be combined with guiding funnels that create visual and tactile stimuli to direct finfish towards the “skylight” escape sections. A different but similar type of design is the fisheye (including Gulf and yarrow fisheyes and bigeyes) which are openings typically forming a rigid frame constructed of aluminum or steel rods and placed along the top center portion of the codend (i.e. Catchpole and Revill 2007). Typically, large animals that strike the bar exit through the opening, while the smaller target species pass through the bars and are captured in the net or codend. Examples of excluder devices in trawls are the Nordmore grid, the Turtle Excluder Device (TED), and the Sea Lion Excluder Device (SLED). A sea turtle excluder chain mat is used in the Northwest Atlantic scallop dredge fishery. A new modification to pound nets may reduce sea turtle bycatch by replacing the upper two-thirds of the leader netting with vertical ropes spaced wide enough apart to let sea turtles swim through without becoming entangled (DeAlteris et al., 2005).
A delay, usually 10-15 seconds in length, between slowing of a trawl vessel and engagement of the winch to haul in the trawl (Broadhurst et al. 1996). This delay may cause changes to the geometry of the codend, creating additional stimuli that directs the bycatch out through fish escape window/separator devices or may simply allow more time for bycatch species to escape through these devices.
A gillnet with reduced vertical curvature (compared to nets typically used in a specific gillnet fishery), an effect produced by not using tie downs. The use of tie downs in general increases the amount of ballooning in the net. Presumably because the net hangs more vertically in the water column, non-target species are more likely to bounce off the net as opposed to becoming entangled within the net “bag” (Price and Van Salisbury 2007).
Nylon nets infused with barium sulfate or other metal compounds that have acoustical detection features for reducing small cetacean bycatch. These may reduce small cetacean and sea turtle bycatch by increasing the likelihood that these animals would “bounce” off the netting. Experimental results show that they can be effective in reducing the bycatch of harbor porpoise and greater shearwater (Trippel et al., 2003), though it has not been ascertained if this is due to their acoustic reflectivity or increased stiffness over conventional gillnets.
Modifications made to mobile fishing gear that fishes on the sea floor. An example would be the "Newhaven" spring tooth dredge, used in the Isle of Man queen scallop fishery. This dredge is wider and fishes higher off the benthos than what is typically used, and has a rubber lip instead of metal teeth (Hinz et al. 2009).
A buoyant net or "umbrella" that is attached to the vertical hook line above the baited hooks. When the mainline is hauled back during gear retrieval, the net sleeve slides down, covering the hooked fish. Net sleeves are used to prevent depredation and hooking non-target animals (Hammer and Childerhouse 2012).
Bait that is treated with compounds intended to make it unpalatable to non-target species (Gearin et al. 1988). For example, a type of olfactory deterrent used for seabird avoidance. Biogenic chemical deterrents that can be made from fish liver oil are released behind the vessel on the surface of the water as longlines are being set (Pierre and NOrden 2006).
Objects such as rubber tubes, thick polyester rope, and chains attached to fishing nets to alert a marine cetacean to their presence using echolocation (Hembree and Harwood 1987).
A metal wire attached to an outrigger clip on a troll line. The quick-release mechanism of the outrigger clip causes the wire to travel down the bait line when a fish is captured. The metal wire may deter dolphin depredation (Zollett and Read, 2006).
An alteration to the lower edge of a trawl net in which the “mouth” is raised high enough in the water column to prevent it from dragging across the benthos. Raised footropes are obligatory during certain periods of the year in bottom trawling in Massachusetts to reduce the bycatch of non-target demersal species such as flounder (Chosid et al. 2012).
Reduce the length of longline set to reduce the risk of depredation and bycatch (Tixier et al. 2010).
Stiffness of the nylon twine is enhanced by adding a different grade of nylon (Bordino et al. 2013).
Methods that reduce bycatch by eliminating gear sets at the ocean surface by changing the property of fishing lines so that they are less likely to catch or ensnare animals feeding at the surface or in the mid-water column. These include devices such as setting chutes that place sets below the ocean surface in longline operations where they are less prone to seabird predation, and setting gillnets below the sea surface to reduce entanglement rates of small cetaceans (Hembree and Harwood 1987). They can also be used on longline vessels to increase the speed at which baited lines get below the water’s surface where seabird predation mainly occurs (Robertson et al. 2010). Other examples include low profile line, a kind of rope linking lobster pots that might be suspended deep enough to avoid whale entanglements but with enough floatation to lie above rocky bottoms that tend to abrade them. Weighted mainlines may also increase the sinking ate of pelagic longline gear, making it less likely to capture surface-feeding seabirds (Moreno et al. 2008). Frozen bait can be thawed before it is set in the water to increase the rate at which it sinks in longline fisheries. (The sinking rate can also be increased by puncturing the swim bladder of fish bait) (Gilman et al. 2007).
Methods that reduce bycatch by eliminating gear sets at the ocean surface. These include setting gillnets below the sea surface to reduce entanglement rates of small cetaceans.
Increasing the overall tension across the surface area of net panels such as by increasing floation on the float line while simultaneously increasing the weight on the lead line (Thorpe et al. 2001).
Thin twine monofilament nets are used instead of thick twine nets to reduce the bycatch of species such as marine mammals (Northridge et al. 2003).
Welded bars, netting or bungee cords placed in pot traps to prevent pinnipeds, small cetaceans, or otters from entering them and preying on the target catch (Noke and Odell 2002). This technique can also be used to reduce the mortality of bycatch species that may become trapped and drown.
Traps are modified to reduce the incidental capture of bycatch species. This can be done through measures such as reducing the trap opening size, bent-tunnel openings etc. (Favaro et al. 2012).
Structural or operational changes to fishing vessels that would decrease the intensity or signature of their sound output, potentially decreasing the degree to which they attract animals that presumably associate these vessels with a feeding opportunity (Nowacek et al. 2003). At least one study in the Pacific indicated that the noise from longline haulers attracted false killer whales from long distances (J. Watson, pers. comm.).
These devices can vary. For example, they could consist of battery-operated lights set at different flicker rates intended to attract fish but not sea turtles (Wang et al. 2007). Other examples include the illumination of gillnets with a light source such as LED lights or chemical lightsticks (Wang et al. 2013). Deploying the shape of a major predator, such as sharks, near fishing gear. Some studies have indicated that shark shapes trigger an escape response in loggerhead sea turtles (Higgins, 2006). Rope consisting of polypropylene blended with a phosphor that glows a bright yellow-green underwater in wavelengths large cetaceans can see is another example. It glows for 48 hours after activation at an intensity a human can see readily at 20 yards (18 m). The design is based on the premise that with increased visibility cetaceans and perhaps turtles would be more likely to avoid rope entanglements at night or at depth. Current research is looking at how to maintain the glowing properties under the rigors of mechanized hauling (CWBR 2006). Opaque mesh netting can be inserted into the upper portion of a gillnet. This material is highly visible to birds and therefore deters them from becoming entangled in the net. This material is also more visible to marine mammals (Melvin and Conquest 1996).
The incorporation of rope attachments manufactured to break at a strength lower than that of the rope used, or otherwise reducing the breaking strength of lines used in fishing.
For more detailed information, please visit the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department dredges web page.
Gillnets are single, double, or triple layers of net suspended vertically in the water column. The top of the net is connected to floats (headrope), while the bottom is weighted (footrope). Adjustment of the floats and weights allows gillnets to be positioned at varying depth, depending on the target species. Gillnets are generally deployed in large numbers and trap fish either by entangling the gills or by entangling all or part of the fish body. Variation in net mesh size allows fishermen to control the size of their catch.
Set nets are stationary gillnets set near the bottom or at a particular depth. A subset of set gillnets, fixed nets are stretched between stakes driven into the bottom in intertidal areas. In contrast, drift nets are unanchored and float with the current. Drift nets are mostly used near the sea surface. Trammel nets are multi-layered gillnets usually set near the ocean bottom. FIsh are ensnared in the middle layer, which has the finest mesh size. Encircling gillnets are set in a circle in shallow water. Fishers create a disturbance in the water that drives fish into the nets. Several gillnet types may be used in conjunction; combined gill-trammel nets are particularly popular.
For more detailed information, please visit the FAO Fisheries and Aquarculture Department gillnets web page.
Set longlines are used near the ocean bottom and consist of regularly spaced shorter lines, or snoods, attached to a long main line. Drifting longlines have a main line kept near the surface by floats, with baited hooks attached to long snoods. Trolling lines are towed behind a vessel at the surface or depth, and use baited hooks or lures. Vertical lines are attached to a sinker and have one or multiple hooks. Poles and lines, consisting of a baited hook or lure attached to a pole, are the gear type most frequently used by recreational fishermen. Handlines, such as those used for squid jigging, are vertically weighted lines attached to bait or lures; fish are hauled up into the boat when caught.
For more detailed information, please visit the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department hooks and lines web page.
Purse seine nets have a purse cable running through purse rings hanging from the bottom edge of the net. This allows the net to be drawn closed when the cable is tightened. Purse seine nets can be operated by one or two vessels either coastally or on the high seas. Lampara nets are shaped like slings and lack a purse cable. Fish are trapped in the finer mesh at the center of the "sling." Lampara nets are almost exclusively used to catch species inhabiting surface waters. Ring nets are purse seine-lampara hybrids; they are shaped like lampara nets but have a purse cable. Like lampara nets, ring nets must be used close to the ocean's surface. Beach seine nets are set close to the coast and hauled in from land.
For more detailed information, please visit the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department surrounding nets web page.
Pots consists of cages or baskets used to target shellfish, cephalopods, crustaceans, and reef fish. Pots are placed in multiple sets and the location of each pot is marked with a surface buoy. Fyke nets and stow nets are fixed to the bottom and rely on currents to bring fish into contact with them. Additionally, fyke nets use "wings" to guide the fish into mesh bags, where they are captured. Both types are most commonly set near shore. Barriers, weirs, fences and corrals are used in tidal areas and span the entirety of the water column. Fish enter through a narrow opening and are then trapped in a holding compartment.
For more detailed information, please visit the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department traps web page.
For more detailed information, please visit the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department trawl nets web page.