Acoustic pingers

Underwater sound-emitting devices (maximum level of intensity equivalent to approximately 175 dB re 1 &micro;Pa @ 1m) attached to fishing gear, principally gillnets. [Under NOAA's Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Plan for the Gulf of Maine, the sound output intensity for pingers is stipulated as 10 (&plusmn;2) kHz at 132 (&plusmn;4) dB re 1 &micro;Pa @ 1m (NMFS/NOAA, 1998)]. Pingers are now mandated for use in some fisheries in the U.S. Northwest Atlantic, California driftnet, and in Europe. The sound of these devices is believed to alert an animal to the presence of the net and thus decrease the probability of entanglement. Although some studies have shown that pingers can have the unintended consequence of attracting pinnipeds to fishing operations (Bordino et al., 2002), this may be controllable by raising the emitted frequency of the pingers above seal hearing (Kraus et al., 1997). <br />

Multivariate analysis of behavioral response experiments in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae)

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Australia

Target catch: 

N/A

Effect on bycatch species: 

Humpback whales responded to 'tones' by moving offshore and surfacing more often, perhaps trying to avoid the stimuli. Responses to social sounds were more variable.

Effect on target catch: 

N/A

Article: 

Reduction technique: 

Bycatch species: 

Acoustic methods of reducing or eliminating marine mammal-fishery interactions: do they work?

Study Type: 

summary

Target catch: 

N/A

Effect on bycatch species: 

Net alarms do not appear ver effective in reducing small cetacean entanglements in gillnets

Effect on target catch: 

N/A

Article: 

Bycatch species: 

Reduction technique: 

Fishing Gear: 

Acoustic investigation of bycatch mitigation pingers

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Queensland, Australia

Target catch: 

Shark

Effect on bycatch species: 

The current net/pinger configuration is adequate for humpback whales, dugongs and dolphins swimming at normal travelling speeds. The current pinger spacing is insufficient for dolphins swimming straight at the net at high speeds.

Effect on target catch: 

N/A

Article: 

Bycatch species: 

Reduction technique: 

Fishing Gear: 

Migrating humpback whales show no detectable response to whale alarms off Sydney, Australia

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Cape Solander, Sydney Australia

Target catch: 

N/A

Effect on bycatch species: 

There were no differences in behavior of migrating whales when alarms were on or off

Effect on target catch: 

N/A

Article: 

Reduction technique: 

Bycatch species: 

A whale alarm fails to deter migrating humpback whales: an empirical test

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Cape Solander, Sydney Australia

Target catch: 

N/A

Effect on bycatch species: 

No detectable differences in behavior was found between when alarms turned on or off.

Effect on target catch: 

N/A

Article: 

Reduction technique: 

Bycatch species: 

Testing the effectiveness of an acoustic deterrent for gray whales along the Oregon Coast

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Oregon

Target catch: 

N/A

Effect on bycatch species: 

Inconclusive

Effect on target catch: 

N/A

Article: 

Reduction technique: 

Bycatch species: 

Effects of pingers on the behavior of bottlenose dolphins

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Shannon Estuary, ireland

Target catch: 

Effect on bycatch species: 

Change in vocalisation rate in static trials when continuous pingers were active

Effect on target catch: 

Article: 

Reduction technique: 

Bycatch species: 

Field Study

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

California

Target catch: 

Swordfish and thresher shark

Effect on bycatch species: 

Decreased cetacean bycatch and no habituation. Pinniped bycatch was not significantly different

Effect on target catch: 

n/a

Article: 

Bycatch species: 

Reduction technique: 

Fishing Gear: 

Field Study

Study Type: 

lab

Location: 

Denmark

Target catch: 

n/a

Effect on bycatch species: 

Initial response that diminished with additional trials

Effect on target catch: 

n/a

Article: 

Bycatch species: 

Reduction technique: 

Fishing Gear: 

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