Hooks-and-Lines

Fish are attracted to hooks-and-lines by natural or artificial bair placed on a hook, which captures the fish when it bites the bait. One or multiple lines may be used to catch pelagic, demersal, or benthic species. Different line and hook types are used depending on the target species.
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<i>Set longlines</i> are used near the ocean bottom and consist of regularly spaced shorter lines, or snoods, attached to a long main line. <i> Drifting longlines </i> have a main line kept near the surface by floats, with baited hooks attached to long snoods. <i>Trolling lines</i> are towed behind a vessel at the surface or depth, and use baited hooks or lures. <i>Vertical lines</i> are attached to a sinker and have one or multiple hooks. <i> Poles and lines</i>, consisting of a baited hook or lure attached to a pole, are the gear type most frequently used by recreational fishermen. <i>Handlines</i>, such as those used for squid jigging, are vertically weighted lines attached to bait or lures; fish are hauled up into the boat when caught.
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For more detailed information, please visit the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department <a href="http://www.fao.org/fishery/geartype/109/en" target="_blank"> hooks and lines</a> web page.

Field Study

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Chilean Patagonia

Target catch: 

Patagonian toothfish

Effect on bycatch species: 

Reduced bycatch to zero

Effect on target catch: 

CPUE was higher

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Field Study 730

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Chilean Patagonia

Target catch: 

Patagonian toothfish

Effect on bycatch species: 

Significantly reduced depredation and interactions with longlines

Effect on target catch: 

CPUE was higher

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Field Study 725

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Pacific Ocean

Target catch: 

None reported

Effect on bycatch species: 

Metal affixed to baited hook significantly reduced catches of juvenile hammerhead sharks but not blue, shortfin mako, pelagic thresher, sandbar or tiger sharks

Effect on target catch: 

None reported

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Field Study 723

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Western North Atlantic

Target catch: 

Swordfish and tuna

Effect on bycatch species: 

Circle hooks decreased loggerhead and leatherback catch; even more effective for loggerheads when combined with mackerel bait

Effect on target catch: 

Circle hooks combined with mackerel bait increased swordfish catch by weight. With squid, decreased swordfish catch, increased bluefin and albacore tuna catch. Mackerel bait decreased bigeye and albacore tuna catch.

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Field Study 709

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Seychelles

Target catch: 

Tunas and swordfish

Effect on bycatch species: 

Sock DMD did not affect depredation. Shark depredation was higher

Effect on target catch: 

Sock DMD did not affect catch rates of target species

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Field Study 705

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Southwest Atlantic

Target catch: 

Tuna

Effect on bycatch species: 

American style longlines - no significant difference in catch rates for blue or porbeagle sharks, seabirds or sea turtles. Spanish style longline - significant decrease in pelagic stingray catch rates on circle hooks, no significant differences in catch

Effect on target catch: 

Albacore catches increased with circle hooks on both types of longline. Shortfin mako shark catch rates increased with circle hooks on the American style longlines.

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Field Study

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Central Mediterranean Sea

Target catch: 

swordfish

Effect on bycatch species: 

Circle hooks captured fewer (2) loggerheads compared to 2J hooks (9)

Effect on target catch: 

16/0 hooks resulted in a non-statistically significant decrease in catchability compared to size 2 J hooks, but statistically significant decrease compared to size 4 and 5 J hooks

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Field Study

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Eastern Pacific

Target catch: 

tuna and billfish

Effect on bycatch species: 

Small circle hook (C15) had lowest catch of sharks

Effect on target catch: 

Small circle hook (C15) had lowest catch of billfish

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Field Study

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Eastern Pacific Ocean

Target catch: 

Billfish and tuna

Effect on bycatch species: 

Significant differences were found between J4 and C15 and between J4 and C18.

Effect on target catch: 

Significant differences between catch rates were only found between the J-4 and C18 hooks. Large circle hooks (C18) had the lowest catch rates for tunas and small circle hooks (C15) had the lowest catch rates for billfish

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