Hooks-and-Lines

Fish are attracted to hooks-and-lines by natural or artificial bair placed on a hook, which captures the fish when it bites the bait. One or multiple lines may be used to catch pelagic, demersal, or benthic species. Different line and hook types are used depending on the target species.
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<i>Set longlines</i> are used near the ocean bottom and consist of regularly spaced shorter lines, or snoods, attached to a long main line. <i> Drifting longlines </i> have a main line kept near the surface by floats, with baited hooks attached to long snoods. <i>Trolling lines</i> are towed behind a vessel at the surface or depth, and use baited hooks or lures. <i>Vertical lines</i> are attached to a sinker and have one or multiple hooks. <i> Poles and lines</i>, consisting of a baited hook or lure attached to a pole, are the gear type most frequently used by recreational fishermen. <i>Handlines</i>, such as those used for squid jigging, are vertically weighted lines attached to bait or lures; fish are hauled up into the boat when caught.
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For more detailed information, please visit the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department <a href="http://www.fao.org/fishery/geartype/109/en" target="_blank"> hooks and lines</a> web page.

Fishing gear modifications to reduce elasmobranch mortality in pelagic and bottom longline fisheries off Northeast Brazil

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Brazil

Target catch: 

Tuna (pelagic) sharks (bottom)

Effect on bycatch species: 

Rates of external hooking were significantly higher with circle hooks

Effect on target catch: 

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Fishing gear modifications to reduce elasmobranch mortality in pelagic and bottom longline fisheries off Northeast Brazil

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Brazil

Target catch: 

Tuna (pelagic) sharks (bottom)

Effect on bycatch species: 

Mortality at haulback was significantly higher for on J-hooks.

Effect on target catch: 

Article: 

Bycatch species: 

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A comparison of circle hook and J hook performance in a western equatorial Atlantic Ocean pelagic longline fishery

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Equatorial Atlantic Ocean

Target catch: 

Tuna

Effect on bycatch species: 

Catch rates were lower for leatherback sea turtles and pelagic stingrays but not sailfish when circle hooks were used

Effect on target catch: 

Bigeye tuna had higher catch rates when circle hooks were used

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A comparison of circle hook and J hook performance in a western equatorial Atlantic Ocean pelagic longline fishery

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Equatorial Atlantic Ocean

Target catch: 

Tuna

Effect on target catch: 

Bigeye and yellowfin tuna had higher survival rates when circle hooks were used

Article: 

Fishing Gear: 

Reduction technique: 

A comparison of circle hook and J hook performance in a western equatorial Atlantic Ocean pelagic longline fishery

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Equatorial Atlantic Ocean

Target catch: 

Tuna

Effect on bycatch species: 

Swordfish and sailfish had significantly higher external hookings when circle hooks were used

Effect on target catch: 

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Reduction technique: 

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Are circle hooks effective in reducing incidental captures of loggerhead sea turtles in a Mediterranean longline fishery?

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Strait of Sicily

Target catch: 

Swordfish

Effect on bycatch species: 

J hooks resulted in more hooks being swallowed compared to circle hooks

Effect on target catch: 

None reported

Article: 

Bycatch species: 

Reduction technique: 

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Field investigation of rare-earth metal as a deterrent to spiny dogfish in the Pacific halibut fishery

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Alaska

Target catch: 

Pacific halibut

Effect on bycatch species: 

Experimental hooks resulted in greater reduction on catch of longnose skate

Effect on target catch: 

Did not affect catches

Article: 

Bycatch species: 

Reduction technique: 

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Experiment to Evaluate Gear Modification on Rates of Sea Turtle Bycatch in the Swordfish Longline Fishery in the Azores Phase 4

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Azores

Target catch: 

Swordfish and blue shark

Effect on bycatch species: 

Circle hooks resulted in fewer turtles being caught in the throat

Effect on target catch: 

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Bycatch species: 

Reduction technique: 

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Experiment to Evaluate Gear Modification on Rates of Sea Turtle Bycatch in the Swordfish Longline Fishery in the Azores Phase 3

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Azores

Target catch: 

Swordfish and blue shark

Effect on bycatch species: 

There was no significant difference in the number of loggerhead sea turtles caught in the Azores longline swordfish and blue shark fishery between straight 16/0, offset 16/0, and offset 18/0 circle hooks.

Effect on target catch: 

Straight 16/0 circle hooks caught the most blue sharks in the Azores longline swordfish and blue shark fishery, followed by offset 18/0 circle hooks. Offset 16/0 circle hooks caught the fewest blue sharks.

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Reduction technique: 

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Experiments in the western Atlantic Northeast Distant Waters to evaluate sea turtle mitigation measures in the pelagic longline fishery. Report on experiments conducted in 2001-2003.

Study Type: 

wild

Location: 

Atlantic

Target catch: 

swordfish and tuna

Effect on bycatch species: 

Reduced interactions

Effect on target catch: 

Swordfish catch decreased when circle hooks were baited with squid but increased when baited with mackerel. Tuna catch increased when circle hooks were baited with squid but decreased when baited with mackerel.

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